Seizures and Convulsions
Autoimmune factors may play a bigger role in seizure disorders than previously suspected. In fact, a growing number of autoantibodies are being linked with idiopathic seizures.

Why am I still having seizures while on medication?

Treatment for seizures typically consists of anti-convulsants or anti-epileptic medications. Unfortunately, at least 1 in 3 patients complain they are still having seizures while on medication. 1 In these cases, the patient is considered to have drug-resistant seizures or drug-resistant epilepsy, also known as refractory epilepsy. 10

The cause of epilepsy and seizures is often unknown. A number of factors may be involved including genetics, brain structure abnormalities, brain injury or tumor, toxins, metabolic imbalances, infectious diseases, or immune system abnormalities.

Autoimmunity and inflammation are also known to play an important role in the onset of seizures. In fact, people with autoimmune disorders are at a greater risk of developing seizures.

Sudden onset of seizures are a common symptom in autoimmune disorders 2, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), diabetes mellitus, celiac disease, thyroid disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 3

Get treated for treatment-resistant symptoms

Autoimmune dysfunction can trigger seizures

The latest research indicates that autoimmune encephalitis (brain inflammation) syndromes, associated with specific antineuronal antibodies, can cause seizures, as well.

In a subset of patients, “the binding of the autoantibodies to extracellular antigens directly causes neuronal dysfunction.” 4 This disruption in neuronal functioning can trigger the sudden onset of seizures.

“Autoimmunity is increasingly being recognized as a cause of epilepsy,” 5 particularly in people who are still having seizures while on anti-convulsant medication. “Perhaps the failure of new antiepileptic drugs is because some of these patients have autoimmune-mediated epilepsy.” 6

Autoimmune encephalitis, which refers to a broad category of syndromes involves a misguided attack of autoantibodies against specific receptors in the brain. In response to an infection or environmental stressor, the immune system produces antibodies that mistakenly attack (either bind to or block) various receptors in the brain. This can disrupt neuronal cell signaling and cause inflammation in the brain, potentially triggering the onset of neurologic (seizures) and/or psychiatric symptoms.

“In recent years, immune cells producing inflammatory molecules were detected in surgically resected brain tissue from patients with pharmacoresistant [drug resistant] epilepsies without an autoimmune etiology.” 7

If a person is still having seizures while on standard medication, check with your doctor because there could be an underlying autoimmune dysfunction and inflammation that may need to be treated.

Importance of diagnosing autoimmune seizures

If you’re still having seizures while on standard medication, identifying if there is an autoimmune basis is important, since treatment typically involves immunomodulating therapy.

And if identified and treated, autoimmune seizures may often be completely resolved. One study reports, 81% of patients had “significant improvement in seizure status” and 67% achieved “seizure freedom, a majority of whom were antiepileptic drug [AED] resistant.” 8

“If you diagnose autoimmune epilepsy in these patients early and treat them, you can actually cure them,” says lead author Dubey. 9

“The identification of an immune basis in AE [autoimmune epilepsy] is very important because early diagnosis and immunotherapy may actually limit the duration or severity of the illness and could improve the outcome of epilepsy recovery.” 8

According to the Epilepsy Foundation, a person’s medical and family history can provide clues as to whether they may suffer from autoimmune-induced seizures. These clues include: seizures that start in adulthood, seizures that have no known cause, a personal or family history of autoimmune disorders, new onset of seizures that do not respond to anti-epileptic medications. 10

Autoimmune seizures typically start in adulthood and do not respond to medication. “In fact, only 1 out of 8 people with autoimmune seizures will respond to anti-seizure medication alone.” 10

  1. Dubey D, Alqallaf A, Hays R, et al. Neurological Autoantibody Prevalence in Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology. JAMA Neurol. 2017;74(4):397–402. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.5429
  2. Quek AM, Britton JW, McKeon A, et al. Autoimmune epilepsy: clinical characteristics and response to immunotherapy. Arch Neurol. 2012;69(5):582–593. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.2985
  3. Vincent A., Crino P. Systemic and neurologic autoimmune disorders associated with seizures or epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2011; 52(3): 12-17.
  4. Damato V. Diagnostic algorithms in autoimmune encephalitis. Neuroimmunology and  Neuroinflammation 2016;3:93-97. 10.20517/2347-8659.2015.43
  5. Bauer J, Becker AJ, Elyaman W, et al. Innate and adaptive immunity in human epilepsies. Epilepsia. 2017;58 Suppl 3(Suppl Suppl 3):57–68. doi:10.1111/epi.13784
  6. Quek AML, Britton JW, McKeon A, et al. Autoimmune Epilepsy: Clinical Characteristics and Response to Immunotherapy. Arch Neurol. 2012;69(5):582–593. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.2985
  7. Vezzani A, Lang B, Aronica E. Immunity and Inflammation in Epilepsy. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2015;6(2):a022699. Published 2015 Dec 18. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a022699
  8. Fang Z, Yang Y, Chen X, et al. Advances in Autoimmune Epilepsy Associated with Antibodies, Their Potential Pathogenic Molecular Mechanisms, and Current Recommended Immunotherapies. Front Immunol. 2017;8:395. Published 2017 Apr 25. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.00395
  9. MedPage Today. Nyberg K. Identification and Treatment of Autoimmune Epilepsy.
  10. Epilepsy Foundation website.
still having seizures while on medication

If a person is still having seizures while on standard medication, check with your doctor as there could be an underlying autoimmune dysfunction and inflammation that may need to be treated.

People with autoimmune disorders are at a greater risk of developing seizures.
Autoimmune seizures typically start in adulthood and do not respond to medication.

Learn more about how infections can trigger neuropsychiatric symptoms

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Researchers describe a complex case involving a 15-year-old girl, who abruptly developed multiple neurologic and psychiatric symptoms.

The association between streptococcus pyogenes and tics/OCD

The association between streptococcus pyogenes and tics/OCD

In this book chapter, Dr. Madeleine Cunningham explains the association between Group A strep and the onset of tics and/or OCD and their clinical manifestations in children with the autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder, PANDAS.

Childhood infections can increase risk of mental illness in kidss

Childhood infections can increase risk of mental illness in kids

Nationwide study finds both mild and severe infections can increase risk of mental disorders in children and adolescents..

  • Test Order Process
    The Cunningham Panel™ – Antibody testing that helps determine whether an autoimmune response may be triggering neurologic and/or psychiatric symptoms.

B. Robert Mozayeni, MD

Medical and Clinical Advisor

B. Robert Mozayeni MD

Dr. B. Robert Mozayeni was trained in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology at Yale and at NIH. He has had pre- and post-doctoral Fellowships in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale, and also at NIH where he was a Howard Hughes Research Scholar at LMB/DCBD/NCI and later, Senior Staff Fellow at LMMB/NHLBI/NIH. Editorial board of Infectious Diseases – Surveillance, Prevention and Treatment. Past President of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS).

He is an expert in Translational Medicine, the science and art of advancing medical science safely and efficiently. He is a Fellow of the non-profit Think Lead Innovate Foundation and is a co-founder of the Foundation for the Study of Inflammatory Diseases. He is a Founder of the Foundation for the Study of Inflammatory Diseases to crowd-source medical solutions for complex conditions using existing knowledge, diagnostic methods, and therapies to meet patient needs immediately. He is the Chief Medical Officer of Galaxy Diagnostics, LLC. He is a Board member of the Human-Kind Alliance. Dr. Mozayeni has held admitting privileges (since 1994) on the clinical staff of Suburban Hospital, a member of Johns Hopkins Medicine and an affiliate of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center.

Safedin Sajo Beqaj, PhD, HCLD, CC (ABB)

Moleculera Labs, Clinical Laboratory Advisor
Medical Database, Inc., President and CEO

Sajo Baqaj, PhD

Dr. Sajo Beqaj is board certified in molecular pathology and genetics and licensed as a Bioanalyst and High Complexity Laboratory Director. He has been practicing as a laboratory director since 2005.

Dr. Beqaj served as a technical director and was part of the initial management team for several well-known laboratories in the clinical lab industry including PathGroup, Nashville, TN; DCL Medical Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, and Pathology, Inc, Torrance, CA. He is currently serving as off-side CLIA laboratory director for BioCorp Clinical Laboratory, Whittier, CA and Health360 Labs, Garden Grove, CA.

Dr. Beqaj received his Ph.D. in Pathology from Wayne State University Medical School, Detroit, Michigan. He performed his post-doctoral fellowship at Abbott Laboratories from 2001-2003 and with Children’s Hospital and Northwestern University from 2003-2005.

Dr. Beqaj has taught in several academic institutions and has published numerous medical textbook chapters and journal articles. He has served as a principal investigator in clinical trials for several well-known pharmaceutical and diagnostic companies such as Roche HPV Athena, Merck HPV vaccine, BD vaginitis panel, Roche (Vantana) CINtec® Histology clinical trials, and has presented various scientific clinical abstracts and presentations.

He is a member of several medical and scientific associations including the Association of Molecular Pathology, American Association of Clinical Chemistry and the Pan Am Society for Clinical Virology. He has served on a number of clinical laboratory regulatory and scientific committees, and has assisted several laboratories and physicians as a Clinical Laboratory Consultant.

Rodney Cotton, MBA

Moleculera Labs Board Member

Rodney Cotton, MBA

Rodney Cotton, MBA is an entrepreneurial thought leader in the pharmaceutical/biotech industry who is known for his holistic perspective, bias for action in the face of challenges, and commitment to agile processes.

Rod is an independent director for Orchard Software, a private equity-backed health technology company owned by Francisco Partners; an advisory board member to Flo2 Ventures, a venture capital-backed healthcare and health equity accelerator; and a member of the board of directors and three board committees (Audit, Compliance & Finance; Governance & Equity; and Quality of Care) for Community Health Network.

He built a successful career at Roche spanning more than two decades and culminating in the role of SVP, Head of Strategy & Transformation, and Chief of Staff to the CEO for Roche Diagnostics, the North American headquarters of the world’s largest ($17B) diagnostics company.

While at Roche, Rod led key enterprise initiatives, such as milestone corporate communications, health equity coalitions, the US/Roche Group audit, and global/US acquisition integrations. With 40+ years of experience, he drove the financial turnaround and cultural transformation of four global healthcare companies, led teams of up to 280 total reports, managed P&L of more than $1 billion, and served as a key member of the senior leadership team executing the most significant restructuring of the company in two decades.

In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, Rod and his team at Roche accelerated six ground breaking products in 11 months, including the first launch of the market’s most accurate and in demand molecular diagnostic test. He also solved extraordinary challenges of product scarcity, supply chain, product allocation, and logistics to achieve accelerated global sourcing and self manufacturing in line with testing guidelines.

A frequent public speaker on health equity and other topics, Rod was named one of the Most Influential Black Executives in Corporate America by Savoy Magazine and one of the Top Blacks in Healthcare by He also received The Sagamore of the Wabash Award, one of the highest Indiana State honors, bestowed by Indiana Governor Eric J. Holcomb.

Rod holds an M.B.A. from California State University, Dominguez Hills, an M.S. in Strategic Management from the University of Southern California, and a B.A. in Biological Sciences & Technology from the University of California at Santa Barbara.